Another Guideboat?

Should I start another guideboat?  Do I have it in me to see it through?  This will be guideboat number five so  I know well the trials and tribulations that lie ahead.  But, in the end, there isn’t much choice.  The Pandemic has all of us locked down tight.  So I need something to occupy my feeble brain.  So here we go again.

I decide the new boat will be planked of eastern white pine, just as the old time Adirondack boat builders used.  I am unable to source Adirondack red spruce roots for the ribs and stems.  Then I remember that my old buddy Josh sells hackmatack roots.  I met Josh over twenty years ago at the Adirondack Museum.  He was the Museum’s first boat builder in the living boat building exhibit.  His job was to build a guideboat in the traditional fashion in full view of the Museum’s visitors.  I volunteered to act as a docent, answering as many questions as I could from the visitors.  This freed up up Josh to do the building.  After a two year stint at the Museum Josh moved on to Wisconsin where he established a boat building shop near the shores of Lake Superior.  He soon found that hackmatack trees were being harvested there but the stumps were being left behind.  “Aha! “,  he said.  “I know what to do with those”. So he has grown his business selling hackmatack roots to boat builders and others.

Recently he found a forester who needed help felling some enormous white pines whose tops had been blown out by the gales off Lake Superior.  Josh lent a hand and now I’ll have a source of excellent planking stock for my boat.

My next step is to get some high quality white pine for my new boat’s bottom board.  For that I’ll travel into Southern Pennsylvania from Delaware to Hearne Hardwoods.   For woodworkers Hearne is the Holy Grail.  Rick Hearne travels world-wide to obtain the most exotic selection of hard and soft woods,   Customers come from far and wide to find stock to build the most creative furniture, musical instruments and, of course, boats.

Hearne Hardwoods sign

You could spend several days inside Hearne’s warehouse and still not see it all.  It is sort of a do-it-yourself lumber smorgasborg,   You may have to climb stairs to find  the bin that holds the stock you are seeking.  The bin holding white pine planks is on the second level.  These planks are not at all puny.  They are usually 12 feet long, 12 inches wide and four quarters thick.  I find two that look  promising so down they come.

White pine stock ready for a closer look.

I have brought along the bottom board template to make sure I can get a whole bottom board from one of the planks.  I’ll need to scarf two half bottom boards together since I would need a plank over 14 feet long to avoid scarfing.  The planks at Hearne go up to 12 feet so I will have to scarf.  Here I check the suitability of a plank using the bottom board half template.  I’ll use the entire plank by going back and forth on the 12 foot plank.

Checking the suitability of a plank using a template.

Walking into the warehouse at Hearne is like being a kid in a candy store for a woodworker.  Bins of various species of domestic and foreign wood line one wall.  As I said before, the bins go up two stories. On the floor are large crates full of a miscellany of odd objects that would attract only a dedicated woodworker,  These include burls and exotic wood species of various sizes and shapes.  No woodworker worth his salt will go home empty handed from Hearne.

View of Hearne Hardwoods warehouse floor. Bins holding plank stock of various species re on the left.

Next, a gentleman measures your plank and gives you a small slip of paper with its dimensions to take for payment at the office.  While I am paying for the stock it is being surface planed to 5/8″ thick, the final thickness of the bottom board.  Hearne has a wide array of machinery to process raw lumber into finished stock.

Foreground: Crate full of odd pieces of exotic wood.  Background: Some of the machinery at Hearne’s disposal to process raw lumber.

Before I leave the warehouse I notice a distinctive touch that you could only find here.  I have no idea what its fate is.

A tree of unknown origin on Hearne’s shop floor.

I pay at the office that is charmed by wood from all over the globe.

The office at Hearne Hardwoods.

Next time I start constructing the new boat’s bottom board and hit an unexpected roadblock.

Present Day Adirondack Guideboat Builders

The Adirondack Museum (Experience) has put out a new video about present day Adirondack boatbuilders.  Some of my favorite people are in it.  I was the docent for nearly 20 years while Allison Warner built guideboat after guideboat in the Museum’s boat shop.  She did an incredible job somehow overcoming many interruptions while building a very difficult to build wooden craft.  Also in the video is my buddy John Homer of Adirondack Rowboat and Oar.  John is an extremely creative fellow who is learning the art of metal casting so that he can reproduce some of the historic guideboat hardware.  Go to:

ADKX Video Series

“In the Shop with Adirondack Boatbuilders Learn about the traditions, stories, and skills of boatbuilders and explore how the world of boats and boating is changing in the twenty-first century.”

Or to :

In the Shop with Adirondack Boatbuilders

“Boats and boat builders are an integral part of Adirondack history.  The region fostered the creation of a distinctive work boat that is strong, lightweight, and beautiful using locally sourced materials to meet the needs of Adirondack guides.  In the ship with Adirondack Builders will dive into the traditions, stories, and skills of boatbuilders and explore how the world of boats and boating is changing the twenty-first century.”


We are staying in the North Country longer this year.  It is late September  and we have had two heavy frosts.  The fall foliage is at its peak now.  Here is a view of the frozen marsh that lies just in front of our camp.

View of the frozen marsh.

Here are two more views of the marsh in its fall clothing.  The marsh always expresses the time of year.  In the Spring it is pea green with the newness of life.  As summer wears on it begins to take a golden hue, then to a deep red in parts as Autumn approaches.

Early light on the late September marsh.

Here is a view of the marsh out our window.

View of the marsh from our window.

The drive from Long Lake to Tupper Lake is spectacular.  Here are some photos taken from the shore of Tupper Lake.

Fall foliage-Tupper Lake
Tupper Lake again.

Its time for one last guideboat row.  The Frances C. is 23 years old this summer.  She still looks great, not showing much wear and tear.  Since she’s made of Atlantic white cedar she will never rot so she will way out live me.

I have the lake all to myself now (except for a few canoe-campers heading north).  The character of the lake has changed since summer.  Once buoyant and sparkly she can display a brooding mood.

Long Lake broods.

Another view out the stern shows how the lake surface can take on a “hard, even metallic” look.

View out the guideboat stern.

I spot three boaters coming north.  They are quite aways away, down by Moose island when they first come into view.  There are two kayaks and a two man canoe.  As they draw near I hail one of them “Where are you headed”,  I ask. “Tupper Lake.  Are there campsites nearby? ”   “There are a few on the east side of the lake about 3 to 4 miles ahead.  But the best sites are at north end at Turtle Beach.”, I reply.  “Do you think we can make it there this afternoon?”  “Well, you have a gentle following breeze and about 4 hours of daylight left”.  They have a impromptu discussion and resume paddling.

Canoeists heading north on Long Lake on a beautiful fall afternoon.

With some sadness I return back to our dock, haul Frances out of the lake and contemplate a return next Spring.



Endion Part 3-Some observations

Today Endion looks much different than when the hotel was operating.  The hotel and barn are gone replaced by numerous sheds and out-buildings.

Some of the many sheds at Endion.

In addition to those buildings there are three Adirondack lean-to’s on the property.  Lean-to’s were the only shelters allowed  on state land by the Adirondack Park Agency.  They were considered temporary structures since they were open on one side.   Any permanent structure on state land within the Park were destined to ” return to the earth” or were burned down.   Here is a lean-to at Endion.

An Adirondack lean-to at Endion.


Tom is very fond of earth moving and other machinery.  He owns two bulldozers, one he calls (tongue-in-cheek) a wetland’s model.

Tom’s wetlands model bulldozer.

There is also a power shovel.

Tom’s power shovel.


What has always puzzled me is what appears to be a WWII 4 X truck.  I have never seen it in operation but it still must be in running condition since it is moved to a different location from time to time.

Tom’s WWII truck.

Inscribed on the door is “Bissell Farms”.  More on that later.

Tom takes extraordinary care of his lands.  Especially annoying to him are the needles shed by the huge white pines.  These he scoops into piles using a leaf blower and then hauls them away.  He uses a lawn tractor “to keep nature back” as he puts it.

Tom on his tractor keeping nature back.

When we first moved to Endion 30 years ago there were some unusual animals wandering about; a horse, a donkey, and a Vietnamese pig .  They could be encountered day or night.  Sometimes you would wake up in the middle of the night to hear pounding hooves go by your window.

A funny story was told about one encounter.  Owl’s Head mountain is an attraction sought out by hikers.  It has a restored fire tower that gives a panoramic view of Long Lake and Blue Mountain.  The trail head is right off Endion road.

Owl’s Head trail head.

Sometime a while ago a hiker set off on a fall afternoon to catch the fall foliage.  He climbed the tower and took in a magnificent view of a “forest on fire” with fall colors.  He stayed too long though and by the time he started back it was getting dark.  Now the Adirondack Pack is the darkest place on the East Coast.  We call night up here in the North Country “Adirondack Dark”.  It is absolutely pitch black.

Now, at the same time that the hiker was heading down from Owl’s Head, Tom’s donkey was heading out along Endion Road for a stroll.  He came to the trail head and thought “Hmm, I haven’t been here for awhile, I think I’ll check it out.”

In the meantime the hiker was getting panicky.  He could no longer see the path and had to look up to follow the break in the trees to stay on the trail.

Meanwhile, the donkey heard some commotion on trail above him; someone or thing was stumbling along and cursing.  The donkey became curious and decided to stand his ground.  Suddenly “BAM” the hiker hit a soft, but unyielding object on the path.  He sprawled backward onto the ground, his hair standing on end, and gave out a horrendous yell.  The donkey turned and meandered back down the path and home.


Endion-Part 2, We talk with Tom

Fran and  I decide to visit Tom Bissell.  Tom has lived at Endion all his life, although he was not born in Long Lake.  This rankles him since native Long Lakers deny that he is a true native Long Laker because he wasn’t born in the town.  Everyone in town knows Tom.  He was once Town Supervisor and was known for his amusing periodic updates on town affairs.  He is a very bright fellow having been educated at private schools and graduated Cornell University.  Tom doesn’t “suffer fools” as the saying goes.  Fran and I always find him gracious and full of knowledge about the town.

On a warm summer day we check in on him.  He has reached the venerable ripe old age of 92.

Tom Bissell.

Tom is the one who encouraged me to build my first guideboat.  When he found I was interested in building this uniquely Adirondack wooden row boat he invited me to learn from him all that he knew.  He had taken a course on building guideboats from Carl Hathaway of Saranac  Lake and had built several of them.  I sat next to him while he went through a scrap book he had made on building guideboats.  It was of immeasurable help when I confronted the task of building my own.  The “how to” of building these boats was always passed down from father to son or uncle to nephew.  Adirondackers weren’t much for writing things down.  So this was an extremely rare opportunity to learn this generations-old craft.

Tom showed us one of his miniature guideboats that he had built.

Miniature guideboat buillt by Tom.
Interior of miniature guideboat showing carrying yoke.
Another view of miniature guideboat.

This miniature guideboat is about 3 feet long.  Tom has built two of them.  Everything is to scale including the tacks and other hardware.  This was a monumental undertaking.  Building a full-size guideboat is difficult enough; building a miniature one seems next to impossible to me.

Tom told us that Senator Platt of Connecticut was one of the first to own a camp on Long Lake.  This would have been in the mid-1800’s.  When his camp was sold there was an auction of some of the contents. Tom bought a guideboat for $60.  He believes it is one of the first built by Caleb Chase of Newcomb.  Tom restored it and named it Kenneth Durant after the author of the classic book The Adirondack Guideboat co-authored with his wife Helen.  Here is a photo of it.



The Kenneth Durant.


Tom served for a year in the army artillery during the Korean War.  He claimed that it caused him some deafness.  There was a particularly large artillery piece that could send a projectile 18 miles.  When it was fired the noise was ear splitting.   It was that gun that he said rendered him deaf.

Tom’s Korean war cap.

Getting back to Endion, Tom said that the hotel didn’t open until July 1st because of the black flies.  Black flies are indeed a scourge in the North Country.  They are relentless in their attacks and their bite raises a welt that can last for a week.

The hotel was three stories tall but quite narrow.  Guests were also encouraged to stay in cottages that were built in a large field adjacent to the hotel.  They were served three meals a day and were left to find things to do on their own.

A barn housed six cows that supplied milk for the kitchen.  A extensive garden provided vegetables for the complex.

Tom told us a sad story.  His mother always attended mass every Sunday.  One Sunday in mid-February Tom’s father, Talbot, planned to drive his mother to  church.  Endion road was somewhat improved from earlier days but still nearly impassable in winter time.  There is one particularly long hill on the road as one begins the journey into town.  At that time there was a large mound in the middle of the hill that had to be negotiated.  Snow was falling and the road became too slippery to climb without chains.  Tom’s father backed down from where he had begun to lose traction so that he could put the chains on.  At that point he collapsed.  Tom’s mother ran over a mile back to get Tom’s help.  Tom ran back to the car from the house only to find that his father had expired.  A week later Tom was enrolled in a private school in New York City through the generosity of a benefactor.

Next time; Endion today.




Endion-Part 1

It was a drizzly, cold fourth of July weekend.  We were camped at Forked Lake campground in the Adirondacks. Our boys had gone off fishing.  Fran and I decided to paddle down the lake to our car.  There we could at least warm up.   One thing led to another, and we decided to drive into Long Lake, the nearest town.  There we happened upon a sign saying “Waterfront lots for Sale.”  Fran said, “Let’s check that out.”  I was hesitant, but decided to go along with it.  We followed Endion Road to a rather large house on the lake.

There we met Tom Bissell, and learned that he had just finished developing some lots on a cove off the main lake.  One lot was especially appealing.  It had a view of a marsh, and yet it had boat access to the main lake.

The marsh at Endion.

It seemed very inexpensive for such a lot.  We told Tom we would get back to him before the weekend was over.  After checking out other properties, we decided that his lot was just right for us.  We returned to meet with Tom a day or two later.  He and his wife Jane welcomed us into their home, and we chatted for well over an hour about our families and this place Endion.  There was no mention of a sale.  Finally I told Tom we would like to purchase the lot he had shown us.  I told him we could do a down payment, but couldn’t pay for the whole sum at this time.  “Would you take a mortgage on the property?”  “Certainly,”  he said, to our amazement, since that is never done on just a lot.  I then asked if he would like us to sign some sort of agreement on this purchase.  He said “No, that’s not necessary.  I’ll just have my attorney send you papers in the mail,”  Apparently that is the way transactions are done, in the North Country, by a handshake.  Sure enough, papers arrived promptly, and we signed a five-year mortgage.

We learned that the name “Endion” came from an encounter that the American artist, Frederic Remington, had with Native Americans in the late 1800’s.  Remington was paddling along on the shore of the St. Lawrence River when   He came upon a group of Native Americans.  He asked them “What is the name of this place?”  They said, “Endion,” which he later learned was “home” in their native tongue.

Tom’s grandmother, Alice, started a hotel in 1887, and  upon hearing this story, named her hotel “Endion.”  The hotel had seven rooms, and she built  a number of cottages to  rent.  It also had a recreation building, and some other outbuildings.  Endion Road, at that time, was a nightmare, and practically impassable.  It was a corduroy road in places, and a rock strewn, muddy path in others.  The best way to get to Endion was a hand-drawn ferry.  It would crisscross the lake from the opposite side.  One would ring a bell on the far side of the lake to summon someone who would  pull on a rope,  hand over hand, to bring the ferry across from the Endion side.

Endion Hotel sign

The Endion hotel was quite a going concern in its day.   A large garden was necessary to supply produce for the chef to prepare his meals.  College women were hired for the summer as waitresses.  It was one of these women, Jane,  that would eventually become Tom’s wife.

The hotel is long since gone and the cottages were all sold to private owners.  One remaining structure is the recreation hall.  It is now filled with all sorts of memorabilia from the hotel that is a fascinating step back in time.

The Endion recreation building.

Tom built a log cabin which he rents during the summer months.

Log cabin that Tom Bissell built.

The view up the lake on a clear day from Endion is a beautiful site any time of year.  Here is a view taken this summer.

View up the lake from Endion. The Seward range of the High Peaks is visible far in the distance.

The Endion boat house is a permanent reminder of this special place.


The Endion boat house.

Next time we talk with Tom.

Launch Day at last!

Finally the day arrives for launching my latest guideboat.  It is a day that I sometimes thought would never happen.  This boat was a struggle especially down the stretch of planking and the decks.  It took me three years to build her what with a move and all.  But she did turn out to be a beauty and I can now put the birthing pangs behind me.

Now for a name.  I suggested Jezebel to Fran but she thought that was silly and I should give her a more Adirondack-based name.  We live in a place called Endion in Long Lake.  It was named that by the Bissells.  Tom Bissell’s grandmother Alice started a hotel in 1837 on the property he still owns.  Tom is now 92 years old and very much the patriarch.  Fran and I will interview him about his family history and let you what we find out.  In the meantime, here is the name chosen for my boat.

Guideboat name plate.

I have asked two of my guideboat buddies to join me in the launching, John Homer  and Jon Vermilea.  Lucky for me John brought his wife Deneen and Jon brought his wife Ashley and his three girls; Johanna, Charley and Emerson.  These two families added a festive air to the day.

After retiring from the US Army John has started his own business, Adirondack Rowboat Paddle and Oar.  This past Saturday he launched a raider guideboat.  John is specializing in casting the bronze hardware for guideboats and other small craft.  He now has his own foundry to do this precision work.

The plan was to assemble down on our beach for the launching.  John, Jon and Ashley are very familiar with our beach since it is the starting point for the second day of the 90 miler Canoe Classic.  They have participated in that race more than once in some crazy weather.

Before I even thought to ask, John and Jon had brought the Endion Runner down from its trailer on to the beach.

The Endion Runner awaits.

The guys help me into her.


I’m aboard.

Off we go!



Out on the lake.

I can breathe more easily since the boat seems watertight.

Now it is time for John and Jon to take her out.

John Homer underway.


Jon and Charley.
Ashley, the mom.



The Vermilyea family.








After the launch we retire back to our house for lemonade and cookies.  The Vermilyea family brings back many happy memories of our kids.  We had four of our own, and they provided much hilarity and fun as these girls do.  Johanna, Charley and Emerson remind me that kids are almost a different species, certainly different from stuffy adults.  There is no veneer about them, they love simple pleasures like water, grasshoppers (that spit tobacco juice), they love to run (often without watching where they are going), they are curious and inquisitive about everything.  What fun they brought to a happy day.




She arrives in the North Country

It is finally time to pack up and head north for the summer.  Our son Robert has agreed to come down from Massachusetts and pack up the boat and our other “stuff” and drive us to Long Lake.

Fran is apprehensive of this plan because she never likes anything on top of our Suburban.  Her concern is warranted since a tent flew off on the NY Thruway and my lightweight canoes have sometimes taken on the behavior of ultralight flying machines.  No mater how hard I try to reassure her it doesn’t work.  Then too it is a 400 mile trip from Delaware to Long Lake.  Anyway here is Robert tying her down.

Son Robert tying guideboat down to van.

Here she is on top of the van.

Guideboat on van.


Fortunately I take a spin around the block before we leave.  At about 30 mph there is a dreadful thrumming from the straps.  This will never do.  That sort of noise drives Fran nuts.  I’m sure I couldn’t stand it for eight hours either.  What to do?  I decide that tying the straps together should stop the racket.  First I think of string but I don’t have any.  So I go with duct tape.  Duct tape has many uses so why not for dampening strap vibration.  I try it and it works.

We arrive safely without mishap.  Long Lake presents a great opportunity for taking photos of the boat.  Here are some of my latest guideboat.  First, looking head-on from the stern.

View head on from the stern.


A view looking toward the stern.

A view toward the stern.

Now the bow deck.  It is made of bird’s eye maple and Spanish cedar with a cap of Spanish cedar.

The bow deck.

The oars are particularly interesting.  They are made of flame or quilted cherry.

The oar blade showing “quilting”.


Oar with pin.

I need to decide on a name for this beauty.  I propose a couple of names but they are rejected by Fran as being not Adirondack enough.  Next time we will have a name and the boat will be officially launched on her maiden voyage.


The Decks!

When you are finally getting to making the decks you know you are nearly done.  There is a clever display at the Adirondack Museum that speaks to the decks.  It is next to the boat shop where Allison creates her marvelous guideboat renditions.  It is a full size guideboat that is cutaway to show its different parts.  A narration goes along with it.  Every time a visitor pushes a button the boat rotates and the narration  begins.  I have heard it hundreds of times.  One part stresses the importance of the guideboat’s decks to the builder.  The narrations goes something like this ” Guideboats are remarkably similar in design.  Guideboat builders used the decks to display their individuality”.

The decks were used to hide the hand holds for lifting and carrying the craft.  Decks consist of three parts, the deck bridge, the deck itself, and the deck cap.  Here is the deck bridge.

The deck bridge.

The bridge consists of the carlin, the curved piece, and a straight member.  They are made of ash.

In order for the deck to fit flush with the gunwale I have to cut away some of the planking to make a rabbet.

Using a chisel to cut away the planking to form a rabbet for the deck to fit into.

Builder Caleb Chase employed an uncommon twist to the decks he built.  They have a crown made by making the bridge higher in the center than on the edges.  The crown is only about 1/2″ higher than the edges but, in my opinion, it has a dramatic effect on the appearance of the boat.  It is a subtlety  but conveys a sense of “motion” to a stationary boat.

I made my decks of a central panel of bird’s eye maple flanked by pieces of Spanish cedar.  Jumping ahead, here is the finished bow deck.

Finished deck.

The crown doesn’t cause any consternation with assembling the deck but it sure does with the deck cap.  That is because the deck is only about an 1/8″ thick while the cap is 3/8″ thick. I struggled with how to get the caps to conform to the crown.  My wife happened by while I was stymied and said why don’t you use your old trick, water?  So I did.  I took a water soaked rag and draped it over the cap.

Cap being soaked to make it conform to the deck.

After a few hours of soaking the cap conformed nicely.  But as soon as it dries out it will go right back to its original shape.  To prevent that from happening I clamp it down.

Deck cap clamped down after soaking.

Here the cap has dried after being clamped.  It fits quite nicely.

Deck cap ready for fastening.

The decks are fastened with #8 oval head brass screws.  The oval heads give it a classy look.

Here is the stern deck after varnishing.

The finished stern deck.

Note the feed thru on the bow deck in the photo above.  It was originally used to hold a candle lantern when “floating” for deer in times gone by.

Next time we head north to Long Lake for a photo op and launching.


She’s born!

It never occurred to me until now.  A nascent guideboat does not start to exist until she comes off the builder’s jig.  So today will be the day she is born.

So, what about launch day?  What would you call that?  I would liken that to a debutante at her coming out party.

Let’s have another look at her on the builder’s jig.

My boat just before she comes off the builder’s jig. Notice that the Spanish cedar has become strikingly beautiful upon varnishing.

The reason that releasing the hull from the jig is so important to me is that I have never seen the inside of the hull.  I have been fretting over this moment.  How have I done on the inside?  Will I be disappointed?Well here is my wife Fran standing next to her after pulling her off the jig.

My first view of the interior of my latest guideboat.

A cursory inspection reveals that all is well.  Not a bad job at all.

At the Adirondack Museum, Carl Hathaway narrates a video of Willard Hanmer building a guideboat.  Having been a docent in the boat shop while Allison builds  guideboats for many years,  I have heard Carl’s narration a hundred times if not more.  When Willard takes his boat off the jig, Carl intones”the boat is about half done”.  Really, I think.  I have spent what seems to be an eternity in getting this far only to learn I am only half done.  But, you know, I think he is right.

So let’s get after it.  The first thing is to cut of the rib ends that are so conspicuous.  I use a Japanese flush cut saw for that duty.

Cutting off the rib ends with a flush cut saw.

The next task is to clean up the planking to rid it off bedding compound and to make sure the planking  feather edge is finished off.  I use a cabinet scraper with a curved profile to do that.  There is also work to be done along the shear line.  The shear plank does not always line up with the gunwale.  In fact, I purposely left the planking just even or slightly above the gunwale.

Here are the tools to render the planking flush with the gunwale.

Tools for rendering the shear plank flush with the gunwale; flush cut saw, chisel, block plane, and cabinet scraper.

Now there are about 2500 brass screws in a guideboat and 4000 copper tacks.  It is time now to add more tacks.  We need to drive tacks from inside the hull and clinch them to help seal the feather edge joinery of the planking.  Here are the tools for doing that.

Tools for driving tacks from the interior of the hull.

The awl is used to set a pilot hole for each tack.  The tacks must be “stuck” in each hole.  This is a tedious task and one not meant for someone with large fingers like mine.

When I was a docent in the boat shop at the Adirondack Museum I used to tell this story to the kids who cane to watch Allison build a guideboat.  I would say “Suppose  you lived in the Adirondacks in the 1870’s and your father was a guideboat builder.  He would pay you to stick tacks in the holes  he had punched for them with his awl.  He would pay you a nickel for each round of planking.  Now, there are eight rounds of planking so how much would you make?”

I got help sticking tacks when building my second guideboat from my granddaughter Haley.  Her photo sticking tacks is on the title page of my book Tale of an Historic Guideboat and How to Build One. 

Here is a line of stuck tacks.

A line of stuck tacks.


Finally it is time for varnishing the inside of the hull.  This is where Epifanes Woodfinish Gloss marine spar varnish saves tons of work.   If you apply subsequent coats of this varnish within 72 hours you need not sand between coats.  You can image sanding each space between ribs (or bay).  That is a awful lot of tedious work that this varnish eliminates.  Here I’m applying varnish with a foam brush.

Varnishing bays with a foam brush.

Next time we turn our attention to the decks.  They are a signature that each builder can incorporate in his boat.